Essays Power Authority And Influence
Essay on relationship between Power and Authority Assignment Help
This is a solution of Essay On Relationship Between Power and authority in which we discuss Decision Making and its effectiveness and enhancing its capability and performance.
In the process of decision making,there considered different factors and concepts which make their impact on the effectiveness of process of decision making.In general decision making is that process which can used to deciding or selecting an act between two or more course of action. It is challenging to make decisions but we all have to make decisions all the time as in this process is a part of our lives and important to take right decisions in the organisation. Decisions making is a process to change the process by making life changing decisions.In the context of business or organisation decisions are taken to run any organisation or business in effective manner and also provide various growing aspects to the running organisation which can help any business in enhancing its capability and performance.There are two concepts which make their impact on the process of decision making and its effectiveness. These concepts are “power and authority” these two are related and are important while making decisions for effective running of any organisation or business(Barbieri, et. Al 2010).This essay will explain all the important aspects related to decision making and impact of power and authority on its effectiveness and there it will also defined the relationship between power and authority in decision making context and the way they overlap each other or differ from each other will be explained in this study.
Decision making is the process to select the best out of available alternatives. This can be done by using different methods ofselection by comparing them and identifying their impacts. in organisations and businesses there adopted strategic decision making which is a part of strategic management and important for making effective decisions and planning of organisational activities.The strategic management approach includes scientific decision making in which decision is made after identifying and analysing different options and alternatives available and can be selected by evaluating their impacts on the growth of the organisation and business.There are different aspects of strategic decision making which makes impact on its effectiveness. There should be effective management of these factors before making any decision. Effective informationshould be there in process of taking any decision(Barbieri, et. Al 2010).Lack of information and effective people decision making will be affected and results will be ineffective and this will make impact on business or organisation by influencing their performance.In organisations decisions are taken on various levels and by different people by themselves or by taking guidance of others in the business and organisation for ensuring effectiveness of decision made.In the process of making decisions power and authority also makes impact as in there exist all the responsibility to take decision where there exists power and authority. This essay will explain the way power and authority will influence decisions and in what way they are related and overlapping each other.
Power is the ability to control and prevent an action or act to be happen or not. Power is different from right as in there is no responsibility attached to it and has ability to make decisions. In legal language power is an instrumenttransferring any legal authorisation which provides ability to determine and alter rights, duties and other legal relations or his own and of others by his will. Inan organisation there exist different types of power in an organisation or business which reflects the nature of organisation.These powers define leadership in organisation which includes decision making and its related aspects(Karakostas, et. Al 2016).These powers are divided in differentcategories which are as follows.
- Coercive power-This type of power involves threat and forcemakes in which there is a lack of respect and loyalty for long term as in there build fear to lose something. This is a negative utilisation of power inway to threatening others. For example when a leader usecoercive power to making subordinates work by threatening them with transfer, firing and losing something.
- Reward power- this power is positively used in organisation as in there provided different awards and benefits for making others work and can utilise power in most effective manner. There are also provided different perquisites and training opportunities and monetary and non- monetary benefits in organisations by leaders to its employees by using reward power to motivate them.
- Legitimate power- This power comes with the official position held by someone in organisation or a government position in which scope is defined by the position held by that person. This type of power is remained with a person until that person is on that position.For example- power acquired by a government representative with his position for a specified time period.
- Expert power- this type of power is of personal nature which is developed by expertise knowledge and experience. In this power the holder has specific knowledge and he uses that knowledge to influence people(Karakostas, et. Al 2016).
- Referent power- This type of power is developed with the popularity of celebrities whoare famous andpopular and having big fan followings. They can influence people by using their referent power. They have power to make impact on their decisions of selecting and buying something.
While studying power and its different aspects there should be effective knowledge about the important structural sources and characteristics of power. Power can be generated from various sources and by using different qualities and skills.Different types of power are generated by different sources. These sources are used by individuals, sovereigns and states which are as follows.
Knowledge as power-In the present business scenario organisations develops knowledge and skills as weapons for the competitors to develop power which can provide competitive advantage to the organisation to win in the competitive advantage. All these know-how technique also treated as competitive advantage for the company(MEIER, et. Al2015).
- Resource management as power- Every organisation uses different types of resources for appropriately executing all the activities. These resources are financial, human resource, equipment, material and customers. If an organisation is managing its resources appropriately and making benefits out of it then it develops as a power which can help in standing in the market between competitors as cost efficient organisation and high profit making company.
- Strategic decision making as power- There is requirement of taking decisions in every organisation for its effective running of activities and increases its performance. Strategic decision making is adopted by organisations which is a tool of strategic management in the organisation and helps in making decisions which are scientific and most appropriate. These strategic decisions help in appropriate techniques and tools in the organisation.Strategic decision making process analyse and compare all the available options. After analysing these alternatives selection of the most beneficial option is done in this decision making process. This process also helps in developing power for an organisation to stand with competitive advantage within its competitors(MEIER, et. Al2015).
- Effective relationships with others as power- Effective networks are very important for an organisation to be executed all the activities effectively and make networks and contacts in a way that it can help in expanding the reach of company and creating goodwill in the minds of people. These networks providecooperation from different networks in carrying out a task in an effective manner. So this can be developed as a power for any organisation and help it in standing with competitive advantage within its competitors(Zeisberg, 2013).
Authorityis kind of formal power to act or not to act and helps in fulfilling responsibilities by any person or party. Authorities are determined and effectively defined which helps in controlling powers associated with them. Authorities and responsibilities are combined and are associated with each other. Authorities are is an essential part of a management of any organisation and managerial team has to provide different authorities for appropriate running of organisation by taking most effective and appropriate decisions which are most suitable for the organisation. For managing all the factors and adopt effective leadership in the organisation it becomes to provide managers authorities in which there are given some powers with responsibilities to use them in a way that it can make manage employees and their efforts in right direction and empower them by making most suitable decisions for them. Authority makes the employees and subordinates to accept and apply the decisions made by the manager or leader by using their power included in it with the responsibility(Zeisberg, 2013).Authorities are of differenttypes which are following.
- Traditional authority- This type of authority includes traditional rights and powers of any individual or group which cannot be challenged by anyone and it could be religious and spiritual forms and changing culture and structure of tribal and family.
- Charismatic authority- This authority is based on quality and charisma of an individual or group in which people start to follow and respect person having some super natural power and lead to develop a power with responsibility to maintain that respect and belief.
- Legal and rational authority- There exist different legal and rational authority which occurs when there defined different legal authorities and rules. This authority is associated with responsibility to be fulfilled for effective and balanced use of these authorities(Bar-Nir, et. Al2011).
In organisations there is adopted strategic decision making in which strategic or scientific decisions are made which is influenced by different factors and are important for effectiveness of decisions. In the process of decision making power and authority both are important and plays important role. Decisions are made by different people of different level in organisations having different powers and authorities. Power and authorities in relative concepts in the process of decision making and make impact on effectiveness of decisions made in an organisation and business(Bar-Nir, et. Al2011). Decisions are important to be taken for effectively run activities of organisation and appropriateness of these decisions makes impact on the organisational growth. In different organisations decisions are taken by using various methods and approaches by analysing them in appropriate manner. In an organisation different key persons take decisions for proper running of organisational activities. The following are the decision taken in organisation using different powers and authorities.
- Management decisions-These decisions are taken by key managerial persons of an organisation who are acquiring the authority to take these decisions for effective organisational growth. Managers are key persons of any organisation who are responsible for entire activities and effective running of business and management should be effectively done by which all the efforts can be lead in the right direction and organisational goals can be achievedefficiently. Decisions related to structure and culture of organisation and business strategy and policies and procedures which are going to be followed by the organisation in its activities are decided by these key persons having authority to do this(Yaver, 2015).
- Financial decisions- Finance is important for run any business or organisation in effective and appropriate manner. For this purpose there should be taken decisions to manage finance appropriately. Authority to take these decisions related to financial aspect of the company is provided to the key persons of financial department and each department are liable to obey these decisions. There are taken decisions related to selecting sources for finance and diversifying these funds in different department and activities of organisation in accordance with the requirement of those activities. These decisions are taken by the authorised persons of organisation who also have responsibility and liability for their effectiveness and appropriateness(Yaver, 2015).
- Human resource decisions- Human resource is essential part of any organisation as in all the activities are executed by using human resource in the organisation. Human resource decisions are important in the process of human resource management of any organisation and also plays important role in increasing organisational performance through increasing performance of employees of the company. Human resource manager are the authorised people in a company to take decisions related to the human resource and their effective management and empowerment of employees. Leadership is considered as important and essential part in the process of effective management of employees and there are provided different powers and authorities to provide leadership by using different types of powers and authorities to influence employees of company effectively and make them work(Weiss, et. Al2014).
By analysing all these required decisions to be made in an organisation for effective growth there required power and authorities must be available there. Without having power and authorities decisions cannot be taken in an organisation or business and these powers and authorities make it more powerful and effectiveto be followed by others in the organisation.Strategic management in organisation is incomplete without taking decisions in organisation. In decision making process we analyse that power and authorities are related to each other as in authorities are including different powers and it is an extended form of powers. Authorities include different responsibilities and liabilities to be fulfilled and these responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without having powers.This relationship can be understood by the following table.
Above table is defining various powers included in different types of authorities which are making these authorities more effective and useable in decision making process by which growth is increased of organisation(Bernstein, 2010). We will understand these powers and authorities in decision making with the help of different examples which are as follows.
If a leader have to take decision for employees in organisation then he have the authority to make decision for effective management of employees by providing them work motivating them and resolving their problems. For this purpose leader is having authority and also have liabilities to take care and effectively lead employees of the organisation and make their performance increased. For that purpose he has authority to use coercive, reward, and legitimate powers to take decision for leading the employees of organisation. In case of there is lack of authorities and powers then he will be unable to take decisions for effective leadership of human resource of company and there will be ineffective results will be there in the organisation.
In a society and tribal where there exist strong culture to be followed by people all the decisions are taken by the people who are followed by these people of society and tribal and these key people are having traditional authorities to make effective decisions for them(Westelius, et. Al2013). Traditional authority includes reward power and referent power by which they can influence the decisions of others and can take effective decisions for them. There also exist the responsibility and liabilities to manage them and ensure their growth and quality life on these key people while making decisions.
In a country or state all the decisions are taken by the authorised people who have different powers and also responsibilities and liabilities are also attached with these powers which are considered while taking decisions.Legal authorities are provided here which are included coercive powers as in there is legal prosecution in case of not following the decisions taken by them. Celebrities, artists, legends and others famous and popular personalities have charismatic authorities to influence decisions of others by showcasing their decisions and choices. They have expert and referent power to which can be used in their decision making process. There also exists responsibility and liability on him to promote and influence by considering their interest also. And inspire them in positive manner for their positive growth.
In the above analyses of this essay we have analysed the relationship between power and authorities in the process of making decisions. The analyses show that both the concepts are related and complementary to each other while making any decision in organisation or business and are important to be considered(Westelius, et. Al2013). Power and authority are related concepts with some differences in their concepts and way of utilising them. This process of making decision is important and must be effectively done and is associated with the effective utilisation of power and authorities in an organisation by the key person responsible to take decisions. Power and authorities are related concepts but also differs in some characteristics and also overlaps each other in different aspects like decision making. Both the concepts define different aspects of rights given carrying by someone but how they are utilised is different. Authorities are the rights provided to managerial persons to get things done from others and take decisions related to that. Along with this there are also delegated responsibilities and liabilities with these authorities to be fulfilled and by the holder of these authorities. In decision making authority works as the power to take decisions for organisation and also carry responsibility to effective execution of all the activities with the impact of these decisions. For example a CEO of organisation is authorised to take decisions for expending the business of the organisation by taking strategic decision. This authority comes with responsibility and duty to ensure the effectiveness of these results in the company of these decisions taken by authorised person. So in authority the rights or power comes with responsibility and duties.
Whereas power is possession of authority, control and influence on others acts and make them to obey the decisions of person having power. Power comes with the higher authorities and making it possible to influence decisions of others and their beliefs and views towards different things.Power do not carries responsibilities and liabilities with it and this makes a difference between power and authority while making decisions for organisation and business. Different sources of power make impact on the decision making and influence them in different manner.Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Programmers are having these powers to influence decisions of other by their excellent knowledge and it can be expert power or legitimate power and can be personal power(Maser C, et. Al2013). Power can be transformed as structure, legitimacy, strategy and approach to negotiate and decision making. Both the concepts and approaches overlap each other in the context of decision making. Following are different aspects which definehow both the concepts are overlapping each other.
- Power and authority are incomplete without each other and are complementary for each other to make them effective as in there are authority cannot be fulfilled without having powers as in there required different powers to take decisions for effective running of organisation and making others to follow all these decisions taken by authorised person.Responsibilities which are carried by authority cannot be fulfilled without having powers to make decisions and making others to follow these decisions.
- Powers are dangerous without having responsibilities and duties to be considered. There are different types of powers which can be misused in the lack of duties and responsibilities and authorities are covered within powers which provide the effective way to use these powers in the process of decision making. In this context both the approaches overlap each other and resulted as effective in the process of decision making(Hayes, 2013).
- Both the concepts are used as strategies in the organisations as in powers and authorities are diversified between different employees and key persons of the organisation by which decisions can be made by different employees and managers of organisation having power and authorities in effective way. This strategy helps in motivating employees of company by letting them know their value and involving them in organisational growth which enhances their level of performance. This strategy also develops leadership and management qualities in the key people of organisation as in they have to utilise their powers and authorities in effective manner.
- Power and authorities are concepts or approaches which help in building structure of any organisation hence are related and overlap each other. In an organisation there is level of authorities having different powers alongwithresponsibilities and duties to be fulfilled and ensure the effective running of organisation. These levels of authorities define structure and flow ofthesepowers and authorities. Management of the organisation also provided a structure which should be followed by all the members of company.This structure ensures that there is defined structure of communication and orders and feedbacks and this can be effectively done by powers and authorities.
- Both the concepts are related to each other and must be there in strategic decision making process by which appropriate planning can be done in organisation and goals and objectives can be achieved of organisation and creating competitive advantage for the company and this cannot done effectively without the balance powers and authorities in an organisation(Fast, et. Al 2012).
By the above points we haveanalysed the ways by which power and authorities are related in the process of decision making and overlap each other in different manner. Both the concepts are important for each other and make sure that there are effective decisions are taken for the organisation by using the authorities and make all the members and employees to follow these decisions by using their powers. Competitive advantage is also generating power from different sources which can help in standing as a differentiated organisation among all the organisations.Both the approaches are incomplete without each other and become ineffective. So it is essential to have both the approaches to achieve appropriate results and both are complementary to each other. Even though both are complementary and make their impact on effectiveness of each other, there are also differences between them. As in both power can be dangerous when there defined no responsibilities and different types of power can be used to threaten someone to act or not to act on the willing of the one having powers(MACPHEE, et. Al2010). Whereas authorities are carrying different responsibilities and duties to be fulfilled by using the rights provided in that authority for a defined time period. In decision making process both the approaches are important and making impact on each other and making effective decisions and their applicability.
This essay is a detailed study of different aspects which are important to define power and authority. All the attributes, features and literatures are explained in effective manner in this essay as in it is important to have basic knowledge of these two approaches to compare them and know about their relationship with each other as in they are compatible to each other or are different in each and every manner. Decision making is important for every organisation as in all the activities are based on appropriate decisions therefore there should be adopted strategic decision making in the organisation where it is important to analyse different things and alternatives available. in the context of decision making both power and authority take place to make it effective and are related to each other. Different types of power are analysed and sources from which power can be generated are also defined in this essay. Authority and its different types are defined and ways in which both the concepts are related to each other are also defined in the essay. Power is possession of different authorities and can be come up with responsibilities and duties as in authority carries liabilities with the rights to be used. Decision making must be considered all the rights with different liabilities which should be fulfilled and work in the direction to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of an organisation and make it more effective(Bolfíková, et. Al2010). By analysing all the aspects of this essay we can conclude that power and authorities are related to each other by overlapping each other and making impact on effective utilisation and control. Authority is ineffective without power as in it is important to make others follow the decisions and power can be misused without having authorities and this can make impact on the organisational performance.
Decision making process of any organisation considers faith and benefit of all the existing parties and is taken by the key persons of a company having various powers and authorities and they can use these powers in positive or negative manner as in they can use these two approaches to take decisions which are organisational growth centred and lead the organisation in the direction of success(Bolfíková, et. Al2010). And this essay is concluding that power and authority are related and overlap each other in different aspect for effective decision making which can lead to organisational and personal growth.
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Power, Authority, And Accountability In Politics
When looking into the ideas of political theorists it is important to the use of political concepts that may play an important role in what the theorists are suggesting and also how they may affect the relationship between to state and the individuals living within a state. The concepts that will be looked at within this essay are: power, authority and also accountability.
Power in politics is a person who has the ability to influence a person in terms of their behaviour; however they possess no right to - unlike authority. There are many ways in which a person can influence another’s behaviour; one such example is through coercion. Coercion refers to the use of violence or threats in order to influence someone. [Jones and Norton, 2011]
Authority is similar to the idea of power in politics. A person who has authority not only has the ability to influence a person and perhaps change a person’s behaviour but also have the right to do so. Having authority often comes within an occupational role, for example a policeman, a fireman or judges often have the right to tell what to do. This is also known as legitimate power. Legitimate authority only comes into account if the person also has the power to influence other. People may not agree with what they are being asked to do, but because they have legitimate power they do so anyway. [Heywood, 2000]
Accountability in politics refers to the process of being held liable for your own actions. Many people such as politicians have a different degree to which they are held responsible for their actions and consequences that may come as a result of such an action. [Word Bank Group, 2011] Today, Politicians are much more accountable than ever before. Mass media has played a large part in this. Politicians are in the news regularly so we have a better insight into what they are doing and how they are conducting themselves not only in public but also in their private life. The individuals are therefore able to hold politicians and the government but not voting for them in the next election. (Hoffman, 2011)
Niccolo Machiavelli is an important political theorist to look at while studying politics. Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy on the Third of May 1469. Machiavelli was very interested in working in the field of politics. He held many political titles in his life. One such example is when he worked as an adviser to the Borgia family for political matters. [Wheeler, 2011]
Machiavelli travelled all over Europe on diplomatic missions; here he was able to see how the different states were run. He was especially interested in looking at how these states were governed and the different ways rulers ruled their state. These diplomatic missions were part of his political work when he still worked in politics. He wrote very detailed reports about the places he visited on his missions about the way the state was run, by what means and also the character of the ruler(s).
Niccolò Machiavelli is most...
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